In terms of claiming welfare benefits: The second welfare benefit you should apply for is ESA (Employment and Support Allowance) benefit. It is a Disability & Income related benefit that is assessed on two factors - Your inability or ability to work and your disability.
This means you will either be put into a 'work assessment' category, if the DWP (Department for Work and Pensions) feel you could work with your current level of disability and/or at a later stage, or into a support group if you have severe cancer for example. Both have different requirements and both have different levels of benefit payment.
You may have read on the internet that you should download a 62 page pdf application form in order to claim ESA. However. If you visit the .gov.uk government website or visit your nearest job centre, you will then know to claim ESA by calling the DWP directly; because it is much easier than filling out the 62 page pdf application form, which has questions on it that are not so clear to understand and/or answer and steps you are unsure of whether or not to skip to the next section or step. In other words, confusing for the sake of being confusing because of lack of detailed explanations.
Assuming you will do as I did and make the phone call to the DWP: I rang them on 1st February 2018 at 12pm and ended the call at 12:52pm. Within that 52 minutes of call I was asked various questions about my circumstances (I stated I was unemployed, had cancer, had no savings and so on), my wife's income (her working hours and claimed benefits such as working tax credit and child tax credit) and our personal details (nationalities, n.i numbers, addresses, etc). All harmless, innocent, questions.
After answering all the phone application questions, I was then told that I would receive a 'Declaration Statement' letter by 13th February 2018 that confirms what I had said on the phone (I just need to keep that) and a 'Capability for Work questionnaire' application form (which I needed to send back to DWP). They also gave a freepost envelope to send any documents I felt would back up my caim/statement, such as cancer reports and pip benefit statements. At the end of the DWP call I was also told they would process my claim starting from around 16th February 2018.
In my case I received the above letter and form on the 9th February 2018, which unfortunately stated I was not eligible for ESA as my N.I Contributions were not enough. However, they did say that after sending back the above form I might be eligible to have them pay my future N.I Contributions (as long as I am not in work).
What the above means for me is that I need to send them a doctor's note to say I am not fit for work (which I have since obtained from my gp and sent to the DWP) and fill out the questionnaire (and have it signed by my cns), the DWP might just pay my N.I Contributions for me. This in turn, if I live long enough, might mean a paid pension and/or at least a chance to claim ESA in the future!